Thursday, April 11, 2013

Urine Sodium and Fractional excretion of Sodium (FENa)

Urine Sodium and FENa:

Urine sodium is the concentration of sodium in the urine. Remember that the normal value for blood sodium is 135-145 mmol/litre. Note that the range of sodium in urine is far greater than the range in the blood.

The reference range varies according to age and sex. If also depends upon the hydration state of the person. 

  40-220 mmol/L (For male)
27-287 mmol/L (For female)

For children aged 6-10 Year:
41-115 (For male)
20-69 (For female)

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Human Influenza A (H7N9) virus in China: new update

Human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus in China - update

 As of 9 April 2013 (14:00 CET), the National Health and Family Planning Commission notified WHO of an additional three laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus.
The latest laboratory-confirmed cases include two patients from Jiangsu – an 85 -year-old man who became ill on 28 March 2013 and a 25-year-old pregnant woman who became ill on 30 March 2013. Both are in severe condition. The third patient is a 64-year-old man from Shanghai who became ill on 1 April 2013, and died on 7 April 2013.
To date, a total of 24 cases have been laboratory confirmed with influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, including seven deaths, 14 severe cases and three mild cases.
More than 600 close contacts of the confirmed cases are being closely monitored. In Jiangsu, investigation is ongoing into a contact of an earlier confirmed case who developed symptoms of illness.
The Chinese government is actively investigating this event and has heightened disease surveillance. Retrospective testing of recently reported cases with severe respiratory infection may uncover additional cases that were previously unrecognized. An inter-government task force has been formally established, with the National Health and Family Planning Commission leading the coordination along with the Ministry of Agriculture and other key ministries. The animal health sector has intensified investigations into the possible sources and reservoirs of the virus.
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