Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) assay by immunochromatography method: Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and results

Rapid Assay for detection of Human Cardiac Troponin I (cTnl) in Serum/Plasma & Whole Blood by ImmunoChromatography

Fig. Troponin I kit showing Positive result
This test utilizes the principle of immunochromatography, with a unique two-site sandwich immunoassay on a nitrocellulose membrane. The conjugate pad contains two components - monoclonal anti-cTnl conjugated to colloidal gold and rabbit IgG conjugated to colloidal gold. As the test sample flows through the membrane assembly of the device, the highly specific anti-cTnl antibody - colloidal gold conjugate complexes with cTnl in the sample and travels on the membrane due to capillary action along with rabbit IgG-colloidal gold conjugate. This sample moves further on the membrane to the test region (T) where it is immobilized by another specific anti-cTnl antibody coated on the membrane leading to the formation of a pink-purple band. A detectable colored band is formed if cTnl level is equal to or greater  than 0.1 ng/ml. The absence of this colored band in the test region indicates cTnl concentration < 0.1 ng/ml.

Sunday, February 28, 2016

BCR/ABL1 Testing: Introduction, indications, methods and interpretation

Fig. BCR-ABL1 fusion gene (Philadelphia chromosome)
BCR-ABL1 refers to a gene sequence found in an abnormal chromosome 22 of some people with certain forms of leukemia. Unlike most cancers, the cause of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and some other leukemias can be traced to a single, specific genetic abnormality in one chromosome. The presence of the gene sequence known as BCR-ABL1 confirms the diagnosis of CML and a form of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL). Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is part of a group of diseases called the myeloproliferative disorders, with an estimated 4600 newly diagnosed cases and 850 deaths in 2005. More than 95% of patients with CML have the distinctive Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) that results from a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Zika virus : epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

What is Zika Virus ?

Zika virus falls under member of Flavivirus.  The vector for Zika vius is Aedes mosquito. Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated in Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. Since then, it has been observed mainly in Africa, with small and sporadic outbreaks in Asia.
Fig. Zika virus is transmitted by daytime mosquitoes
under the genus Aedes.
Credit: Photo from Wikipedia

Where has Zika virus been found?

·  Prior to 2015, Zika virus outbreaks have occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands.
·   In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infections in Brazil.
·   Currently, outbreaks are occurring in many countries.
·         Zika virus will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time.
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