Saturday, January 31, 2015

Megaloblastic Anemia: Folate and Vitamin B12 Metabolism, Causes, diagnosis and therapy

Fig. Megaloblastic anemia showing megaloblastics cells

An increased MCV can be due to a number of reasons but careful review of the patient's history and blood smear can narrow the diagnostic possibilities.  The differential can be divided into two broad categories based on RBC morphology.

Round macrocytosis-due to abnormal lipid composition of the eryth­rocyte membrane.  Common etiologies include:
            1. Alcoholism.
            2. Liver Disease.
            3. Renal Disease.
            4. Hypothyroidism ("myxedema of the red cell").

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Chronic Cough: most common 8 reasons

Are you fed up with your stubborn cough? There are many reasons why a cough may not improve, and that can be frustrating for people and their doctors alike.

Reason 1: Irritated Airways After a Cold or Flu
The most common cause of chronic cough is predictable. It's the aftermath of a cold or other viral infection, says Norman H. Edelman, MD, chief medical officer of the American Lung Association. Most cold symptoms may go away after a few days. Your cough, though, can

Thursday, December 25, 2014

Subacute Thyroiditis: Introduction, Pathogenesis, symptoms and treatment

What Is Subacute Thyroiditis?

Thyroiditis refers to an inflamed thyroid. Your thyroid is a gland in the front of your neck that controls your metabolism by releasing a variety of hormones.

Most types of thyroiditis do not cause pain in the thyroid gland. However, they typically lead to either hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Both of these conditions cause

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Low blood sugar: What are the effects in our body

Fig. Effects of low blood sugar
Every cell in your body needs sugar (glucose) to function. When your blood sugar levels drop too low, your cells become starved for energy. Initially, that can cause minor symptoms, but if you don’t get your blood sugar levels up soon, you’re at risk of serious complications.

Effects of Low Blood Sugar on the Body

When your blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below the normal range, it’s called hypoglycemia, or insulin shock.

Low blood sugar can happen when you skip a meal. It can also happen if your pancreas releases more insulin than it should after you’ve eaten. The most common reason for low blood sugar is diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough, or your body can’t use it properly. To keep blood sugar levels from rising too much (hyperglycemia), you need the right amount of insulin. With
insufficient insulin, your blood sugar levels rise. Too much, and your blood sugar levels can plummet.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Bone Metabolism : Regulation (Part 2)

Calcium and phosphate balance

Soluble Ca2+, hydroxyapatite and calcitonin 

As calcium (Ca2+) is one of the main components of our bones, large amounts are present
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