Sunday, May 18, 2014

Vitamins for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The Effects of Vitamins for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome can vary from person to person. There are people who experience symptoms of diarrhea with their irritable bowel syndrome while there are some people who experience constipation. Because of this, there are different

Vitamins That Help With Hair Growth

Fig. Vit. E containing diets
Loss of hair, or baldness, is the result of not having enough vitamin B supplements. Vitamin B is very important, as it contains B3 niacin, which is very important for growing hair. Vitamin B6 is another important vitamin, containing nutrients such as sulfur, biotin, magnesium, and zinc. Without these vitamins, your body

won’t be able to grow hair as much, which commonly results in balding or hair loss as we get older.

How Depression affects Coronary Heart Disease

Depression is now considered a major health problem, particularly those health problems related to heart disease. It is now important to recognize that depression is directly linked with heart disease. Depression is an illness that can affect anyone at any time.

Research shows that depression is extremely common with people who have coronary heart disease. Depression is known to increase the risk of further heart problems in people with coronary disease. Depression is a risk factor for coronary

Saturday, May 17, 2014

Vitamin E and Healthy Aging

Did you know that at least 200 UI daily of vitamin E can help fight various diseases? Studies found that alpha tocopherol, or Vitamin E has proven to fight particular diseases. Studies show that Vitamin E may help with oxygen preserving and potentially offers cure for various disease. Taking 200 IU daily may trim down up to 40% or more of oxygen preserves, which controls bodily organs and the heart. The vitamin seems to have a “anti-coagulant” that has proven to support the overall bodily functions. Vitamin E was discovered to reduce blood clotting and can help prevent heart disease.

The vitamin is said to assist with dilating flowing blood vessels. This means the heart will receive the blood flow it deserves to stay healthy. Vitamin E has also been linked to an anti-aging solution. Many doctors believe that this helpful vitamin will stabilize a person’s overall development or maturity. In fact, German doctors called Vitamin E the fountain of youth. In extensive studies, vitamin E was found to promote blood flow. According to the findings, Vitamin E when present is an resister to aging.

Vitamin E is linked to promoting hemoglobin. Since aging has an unknown affect on blood cells and bone marrow, doctors believe that Vitamin E’s support to hemoglobin is a potential solution to solving disease related to hemoglobin. Our hemoglobin structure detains oxygen for an extended time, which means that oxygen will flow smoothly. Vitamin E has been linked to reduced risks of disease, since it is said that oxygen will stay within the cavities of hemoglobin at a lengthier time. This means that the person will live a healthy, youthful life.

Sometimes as we grow older, the blood that forms in our system slows. Vitamin E works to allow blood to flow smoothly. In view of the facts, doctors found that this vitamin may reduce the risks of anemia. Vitamin E was discovered to perhaps purify the blood, which allows it to flow smooth throughout the body. As we grow older, our body experiences many changes, which prompts aging plaques. These plaques when build will cause wrinkling, sagging, crowfeet, and other aging signs. Vitamin E works to maintain metabolism by potentially keeping away fatty acids, which are saturated. (Learn more about hydrocarbons and peroxides, which are aging toxins)

At what time saturated fats join with Vitamin E to slow aging. We need a degree of fatty acids, yet when the acids build it creates elements that promote aging. Vitamin E has shown signs of controlling the blood fats, keeping the fats at bay. Blood fat is also linked to aging. Therefore, we can see that vitamin E has much to offer. Yet, some experts argue that Vitamin E has side-effects that could cause harm; many other experts uphold the ability of support that Vitamin E offers.

Vitamin E has also shown signs of reducing ailments of the muscles. The healthy regimen of vitamin E daily according to experts can reduce arthritic symptoms. According to experts, arthritis and its sister components may link to rapid aging.

Vitamin E has shown to reduce leg cramps. In fact, studies were conducted by qualifying doctors who tested their patients. The patients complained of leg cramp, which doctors recommended Vitamin E. During this particular study the patient who ceased Vitamin E reported cramping in the legs. The patient was asked to start up the vitamin once more and when he returned to visit his doctor, the leg cramps ceased. The studies were conducted at the California or American Colleges of Physician. To learn more about vitamin E and what it can do for you, research your topic to find your purpose.

Vitamin E And Your Body

We all know that oxygen is a primary component that is needed for life. This very same oxygen, once inside of the body, becomes very reactive through certain molecules and will start to cause damage through the free radicals, which is known as oxidative stress. As an antioxidant, vitamin E will help to prevent this type of stress, which will prevent the cells from aging or sustaining any type of permanent damage as well.

Cholesterol, which is a fatty substance found in many foods, is absorbed by the body then transferred from the liver to be stored by tissue as fat. This is carried through the bloodstream by molecules known as LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins). When the LDL is oxidized, it reacts to the cholesterol and a fat substance known as plaque begins to get deposited on the artery walls, which causes the blood flow to stop.

Vitamin E will stop cholesterol from forming into plaque, which will allow the blood to flow properly. If you don’t use vitamin E, in this situation, the blood will stop flowing and the arteries will begin to get backed up. As most of us know, this is the main cause of heart attacks, high blood pressure, and other serious diseases.

Even though many researchers and doctors have linked vitamin E to preventing cancer, this hasn’t been conclusively proven. There are many doctors that have said in the past that vitamin E can indeed prevent cancer, although no documentation or proof has been given to back up such statements. We all know that it is a very important vitamin, regardless.

There are studies however, that have proven vitamin E to be very effective in protecting the skin against UV rays. Vitamin E has been shown on numerous occasions to shield the skin from the harmful rays of the sun, which as we all know, can lead to skin cancer. If you include sources of vitamin E, or supplements in your diet you can help to prevent the damage of UV rays to your skin.

Along with these types of benefits, vitamin E can also protect against alzheimer’s disease and inflammation of the pancreas. This vitamin can also be very beneficial with reducing scars, and healing many types of burns and wounds. Included in your diet, vitamin E can help your skin to heal from many discrepancies over time.

When included with vitamin C, vitamin E can be one of the most important vitamins for your body. It offers many different benefits, besides the ones listed above. You can find it in many different forms, including fruits and nuts. Fruits are excellent sources of vitamin E, especially oranges. Oranges have always been known to be rich in this vitamin, whether you are consuming whole oranges or just drinking orange juice. If you are drinking orange juice that contains pulp, you’ll be getting plenty of vitamin E in your diet.

All things aside, you should always make sure that you include vitamin E in your diet. Along with fruits and nuts, you can also find this vitamin plentiful in vegetables as well. You can include it into your diet, or take supplements that provide it. You should be getting around 1,000 mg of the vitamin a day, which isn’t hard to do if you eat the right foods. If you consume the right amount of vitamin E in your diet, you’ll notice that your body will perform much better - and you’ll be well protected against numerous diseases as well.

Drug Addiction: A Disease

Drug addiction is a disease. There’s no doubt about that. In fact experts say that drug addiction is more of a brain disease than anything else. Scientific advances have offered amazing insights into how the brain works and what drugs do to the way the brain functions. Luckily, however, this disease is treatable and curable.

Friday, May 16, 2014

Vitamins For A Healthy Heart

As we all know, vitamins are very important when it comes to keeping your heart healthy. You need to eat the right foods of course, although you also need to supplement the food you eat with the necessary vitamins your body needs to stay in shape and keep your heart working healthy for a long time to come. If you don’t consume the right nutrients, you won’t be doing your heart any favors - and may end up having problems later on in life.

The first vitamin that comes to mind for most people is vitamin E, a vitamin that is essential to improving the overall health of your heart. When taken correctly, vitamin E will stop the cholesterol in the body from harming the arteries that surround the heart. Anytime cholesterol oxidizes, it sticks to the sides of the arteries and can lead to blockages which can cause heart attacks or other serious problems with the heart.

To help you keep your heart healthy, most doctors recommend that you take additional supplements that contain vitamin E. They may also suggest that you eat foods that are naturally rich in vitamin E, such as nuts. Nuts have high amounts of vitamin E, and most of them taste great. You can find other foods that contain vitamin E as well, although nuts have the highest amounts.

In the past, research has shown Vitamin E to help those who have already suffered the wrath of a heart attack. This vitamin helps to prevent heart attacks in the future by opening up the arteries and eliminate blockage. Those who have had a heart attack in the past are always encouraged to add more vitamin E to their diet.

What many aren’t aware of, is the fact that you can use vitamin C to boost the effects of vitamin E. Vitamin C is known as an antioxidant, which prevents the damaging effects that cholesterol has on the body. Along with preventing cholesterol from damaging the body, vitamin C also helps vitamin E with it’s functions - such as protecting your arteries and your heart.

By taking both vitamin C and E as a combination, you’ll be well on your way to a healthier heart. Overall, this is the easiest way that you can be sure you aren’t damaging your heart, especially if you have had a heart attack in the past. If you have a history of heart disease or heart problems in your family, these vitamins are essential to your diet. Even if you are just concerned about the health of your heart, these vitamins will give you the peace of mind in knowing that you are eating for a healthy heart.

As far as your dosage goes, it will vary from person to person, although 400 international units of vitamin E and C are the recommended amounts for most people. On it’s own, vitamin C can be tolerated in large doses, without imposing any harmful effects. You can take around 500 mg of it twice a day, and ensure that your heart remains healthy.

To be on the safe side, you should always make sure that you get the proper amount of vitamins in your daily diet. Taking additional vitamins and supplements isn’t a bad idea either, especially if you are trying to boost the health of your heart. Your heart is one of the most important organs in your body, which is why you should always take care of it. If you eat the proper diet and take the necessary vitamins - you’ll be well on your way to keeping your heart healthy.

Bradycardia the Hearts Slow Rate

Bradycardia is when the heart rate is less than that of sixty beats per minute. A normal healthy heartbeat is between sixty and one hundred beats per minute. Bradycardia is the opposite of Tachycardia – the condition where the heart beats way to fast.

In some people, such as athletes and people who are very active, Bradycardia rates can be as low as fifty beats per minute. This can be normal and as the person exercises, the heart rate will continue to become stronger and more efficient. This is because less heart contractions are necessary to supply their body’s needs.

In other cases, bradycardia can be a form of cardiac arrhythmia, a heart-rate abnormality.

Bradycardia can cause dizziness, weakness, lack of energy, or fainting spells.

If bradycardia is caused by a medical illness, there will be additional symptoms that are specific to that illness. For example, people whose bradycardia is due to severe hypothyroidism may also be able to have constipation, muscle cramps, weight gain, very dry skin, hair that is thin and dry, an abnormal sensitivity to cold temperatures and other symptoms related to low levels of thyroid hormones.

How long bradycardia lasts depends on its cause.

For example, normal bradycardia in a well-trained athlete will last as long as the athlete maintains his or her usual level of exercise. For instance is bradycardia occurs as a side effect of medication, it usually disappears as soon as the drug that triggered the bradycardia is finished. For example any Bradycardia caused by hypothyroidism will go away quickly after treatment with thyroid hormones. There are certain forms of bradycardia resulting from cardiac arrhythmias that can be cured with a permanent pacemaker.

When bradycardia occurs as a side effect of medication, the problem can be prevented by either switching the drug or reducing its dose. In premature infants, bradycardia is also very common and the infant will require constant medical attention.

Do You Need Medical Alert?

There are quite a few things that can determine your health and your state of mind. One would be how well you are doing if you have a medical condition, your age, or if you live alone. You may think of something like a medical alert to be for someone who is elderly and may live alone or with someone else with medical problems, but there are other people who may want to have this same technology with them in their home. It is never easy to be alone and unwell, but it does give peace of mind to know that someone can come as soon as needed if something were to go wrong.

A good medical alert is going to be something that is accessible at all times. This means that no matter where you go in your home or out, you always have access to something you can trigger to get help to come. A phone is great as a medical alert, but you can not get up and call someone if you have fallen down the steps and broken a leg. You can carry a cell phone, but that is not always the best either. You could easily drop it or forget to put it in your pocket in the morning. Instead, think about other ways to be sure you are never alone, even when you are the only one in the house.

There are systems that use a medical alert right in the home security system. That means there is a simple button that you can push to alert someone that you need emergency help or that someone else should come right away. These are good, but like the phone, will not help much if you can not reach the button to push it and send for help. Often, if the button is pushed, the security company will call and if you do not answer, they will send out medical help and the police right away.

Probably the best type of medical alert for anyone of any age that is alone at home with an illness or medical condition would be the type that comes on a necklace or bracelet. These are put on in the morning and can be worn to bed if needed. When you have one of these for medical alert, you can always get to the button to push for help. You can not help yourself if you have passed out, of course, but this is a great answer in almost any other situation. The only problem is remembering to have it on you at all times, but most people get use to it rather quickly and feel safer because of it.

There is another type of medical alert that will not call someone to your home, but is just as valuable. There are bracelets and necklaces that you can wear that list any medical conditions that you may have and that medical staff would need to know about if you can not answer for yourself for any reason. These are often worn by people with diabetes, heart conditions, or those that need special medications. In the event you are incapacitated, your medical alert bracelet or necklace can do the talking for you.

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Vitamins Promoting Healthy Aging

People do not realize what vitamins can do for them. Vitamins are great for those who need them. On the other hand, if you have sufficient vitamins, then you will not need regimens of vitamins. Building vitamins in your system, which has too much already, or sufficient nutrients can cause harm. Vitamins will make you look younger and feel younger as well as make you feel good about yourself, providing you need regimens suited for your system.

How do I learn what vitamins are good for me?

We get natural vitamins in the foods we eat. Some times, you do not get the right amount so you have to take vitamins, which come in many ways. You can get them in a pill form, liquid, powder, etc. If the vitamins you choose do not work for you, your doctor can give you a shot. You can get almost all the vitamins you may need at local drug stores. You will find vitamins at supermarkets, department stores and so on. If you cannot determine which vitamins are right for you, check with your doctor. He may have some recommendations. In fact, you should visit your family doctor first and ask him/her, which vitamins may be suitable for your body type.

How vitamins help you:

Taking vitamins will help you to relieve stress. Vitamins will help control your weight, and help keep you from getting sick with the common cold and the flu. There are many vitamins to help you out. You can check out at your local pharmacy many different kinds. You pharmacist is your best friend as well as your doctor. He/she may be able to help you find out which vitamins are best suited for your body type.

What kinds of vitamins should I consider and for what purpose?

You have a wide array of vitamins to choose from, including B1, B12, B6, E, D, K, A, and so on. B1 is designed to help your heart function in order. The vitamin will assist your central nervous system as well, helping you to have a better attitude in life. B1 will give you energy, since it is known to swap blood sugar, transferring it to energy. B1 promotes a healthy mucous membrane, and will promote the muscular and cardio functions.

How to decide if you need vitamins:

Some things that you may feel if you are low on vitamins are fatigue. You may feel muscle tenderness, or experience insomnia. Insomnia can benefit from Melatonin supplements. You can get natural vitamins from corn breads, nuts, oatmeal, cereal, wheat and so on. Eat plenty of veggies and fruits also to get the vitamins you need.

If you have colds, you can benefit from Vitamin C. If you are searching for anti-aging vitamins consider E, since According to experts, Vitamin E is responsible for preserving oxygen in the blood, reduce more than 40% of the oxygen amount the heart needs as well. Vitamin E also has been linked to influential anti-coagulants. Some experts believe the vitamin will slow blood clotting by dilating the blood vessels. If you searching for the vitamin to help you stay young and healthy, then Vitamin E that contains 200 units is for you.

According to German experts Wolf and Luczak Vitamin E is a stabilizer for youth and strong blood. If this is true, then dying cells will be replaced quickly by new cells. Dying cells is responsible for many diseases, including cancer, AIDS, HIV, leukemia and so on. In fact, T-Cells that deteriorate is responsible for AIDS, certain types of cancers, herpes simplex, and so on.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are also known as heart diseases and they revolve around the heart, the veins, and the arteries. Most of the cardiovascular diseases are arterial and they are treated by cardiologists, vascular surgeons, neurologists, thoracis surgeons, and interventional radiologists. Hearts diseases are the number one killer all over the world. Many of these heart diseases manifest themselves during adulthood and this necessitates prevention early enough.

Cardiovascular diseases advance over the years and by the time they are discovered, they may have progressed making treatment difficult. The prevention measures for heart diseases include exercise, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet. Four common types of cardiovascular disease include stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and high blood pressure. Coronary heart disease occurs as a result of a blocked heart thereby stopping blood from getting into it. The major cause of heart attacks is blood clots. This condition is very serious since when blood flow stops, the heart muscles dies and this is what gives people heart attacks.

Heart failure is a condition whereby the heart fails to pump blood as usual. This makes the body get inadequate blood and oxygen. People with heart failure will have swollen feet, legs, and ankles. They will also feel fatigued, a condition known as pulmonary congestion, which results from a build up of fluids in the lungs. High blood pressure is also known as hypertension and this means an increased pressure in the arteries. Blood pressure is a dangerous condition as it is hard for people to tell they have it. This kind of pressure often leads to heart attacks, hardened arteries, stroke, and heart failure.

Stroke results from a blocked blood vessel that supplies the brain with oxygen. As a result, that part of the brain stops functioning and this means that the body functions controlled by this part of the brain will stop. A ruptured blood vessel will also result into a stroke. Some of the most common symptoms of cardiovascular diseases include sudden numbness that affects the arms and the face. People may also experience chest pain, pelvis pain and pain in the legs. There will be instances of shortness of breath, faster heartbeats, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and abnormal heartbeats. Most of these symptoms will occur in the brain and in the heart as well.

It is important to consult a physician who will diagnose what heart defect a person has. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases is varied depending on the type of illness people have. The physician may advise the unblocking of the vessel that is not supplying blood through a surgical operation. This will open up the blood flow and the heart will function as usual. Most of the time, the heart vessels are clogged with fat and this is what is removed to unblock them. Some of the techniques used include atherectomy whereby a knife and a catheter are used to remove the accumulated fats. A coronary artery bypass surgery may also be used to treat a cardiovascular occlusion.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Do You Have A Sexually Transmitted Disease

Some of the most uttered and regretted words that any teenager can say are, “It won’t happen to me.” As we grow into adulthood, we are bound to make some mistakes that we would never dream of making ten years later, but that does not mean anything when the choices are right in front of us. Teens can make mistakes, but some of them are larger than the others. One thing that many get when they are having sex before they should be would be a sexually transmitted disease. The problem with some is that they are very hard to see right away.

One of the most common that affects women is HPV. This is a sexually transmitted disease that is spread through genital contact, and can remain dormant in a man for a very long time. He won’t have any signs of it even when the girl does. This is also known as genital warts, because there are sores that can look like warts that appear. These can be mistaken for herpes in some if they do not know what they are looking for. The worst thing about this sexually transmitted disease is that it can cause cancer of the cervix.

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease that confuses many. The open sores usually send someone to the doctor, but they often have no idea what this really is. When you have herpes, your life is going to be different from then on out. Some think they can only pass this sexually transmitted disease along when they are having a out-break, but that has been proven to be untrue. It can go from person to person through sexual contact at any time. There are some good medications out for this now, but nothing is foolproof at this point.

Probably one of the worst sexually transmitted disease is HIV-AIDS. Though people are living a lot longer with this disease now, it is still not something that anyone should mess with. There are some that think this is a disease that affects the gay community only, or that it is only something that you have to worry about if you live in urban areas. Both are wrong. You don’t want to get this sexually transmitted disease, so think about that before you take another step. If for any reason you think you have been exposed to any of these, see someone right away.

Vitamin Supplements

Although getting the proper amount of vitamins and nutrients from natural food is important, it can be very hard to do. Those who can’t get the minerals and such they need from food, turn to vitamins and supplements. With vitamin supplements being a big business, there are many manufacturers to choose from. Each year, there are thousands of supplements out there, with customers spending billions and billions of dollars to get the supplements and vitamins they need.

Right now, there are 3 different delivery systems for supplements – liquid, capsules, and tablets. Although each one is good in its own right, you should always pick one that dissolves easy and doesn’t just pass through your system. If your vitamin passes through your body, it will end up toilet and you’ll end up wasting your money.

Liquid is considered to be the best, although there aren’t that many supplements or vitamins available in liquid form. Liquid is preferred by some, although others think of them as tasting like cough syrup. If you aren’t able to swallow pills or capsules, then liquid would be a great alternative.

The most common type of supplement is tablets. Tablets are created from organic cement then formed into shape. The only drawback here is dissolving. For tablets to dissolve properly, organic cements need to be used, although they cost quite a bit more, causing manufacturers to skip adding them. You can also find supplement tablets that have a coated shell, although they are normally found in the cheaper vitamin and supplement stores.

The capsule type of vitamin supplements is preferred by many, as they dissolve quickly, normally faster than the other delivery systems. Due to the fact of them not being compressed like tablets, you’ll normally need to take two of them to get the same amount that’s provided with one tablet.

When you use vitamin supplements, you want to be sure that you are getting the most amounts possible. Vitamins are a great alternative to minerals and nutrients found in food, and are ideal for those who aren’t able to eat the right foods. Vitamin supplements are also great for athletes or those looking for more energy, as they will supply the levels your body needs for exhaustive activity.

You can buy your vitamin supplements on the Internet, or through a local nutrition store such as GNC. GNC is among the most popular in terms of local stores, as they carry hundreds and hundreds of vitamins and supplements. You can find everything from health vitamins to bodybuilding supplements. They have rock bottom prices with plenty of manufacturers, including the top name brands. With millions of dollars in revenue each year and over 100 chains throughout the United States, GNC is a dominant name in the world of vitamins and supplements.

If you need to take vitamins or supplements but aren’t sure what you should take, you should consult with your doctor. Vitamins and supplements are a great way to get minerals and nutrients to your body, although they should never, ever, be used to replace food. You’ll still need to maintain a healthy diet, even though you may be taking vitamins. If you can maintain a healthy diet when taking your vitamins and supplements, you’ll find the benefits to be twice as good. When choosing your supplements you should always choose them wisely, making sure that you get exactly what you need. If you choose your vitamins and supplements wisely – you’ll find them to be the perfect addition to a healthy diet.

Vitamins to Improve your Personal Life

Most people do not like to take any kind of medicines on a daily basis. They do not care that the medications will help them or not. They just do not like to take even an aspirin for a headache. So why would these people want to take vitamins. Well taking vitamins well help you in the long run. You get some of the vitamins you need in the foods you eat yet some people need more then others. That is why you can buy one vitamin and it covers all the vitamins you need in one pill. Therefore, you do not have to take a hand full of pills.

How will vitamins help me?

Taking vitamins will help you with many things like your vision, blood pressure, your moods swings, if you have diabetes vitamins can help, your nervous system, etc. If you think you might feel better is it not worth taking a vitamin. Vitamins will also help to strengthen your heart, immune system and boost your metabolism. The metabolite vitamins are available if you feel energy-less.

How do I know if I need a vitamin?

Your body gives you clear indications when something is wrong. If your body is telling you that something is wrong, you should visit your doctor. In fact, before you take a vitamin you should talk to your doctor first. Your doctor will know what nutrients you are missing. Our body has a natural mechanism that alerts us when something is wrong. Learn to pay attention to your body and mind. Unfortunately, this world desensitizes us to the point we fail to listen to our body.

About Vitamins:

Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin. The vitamin works to control sweat, urine, and solid waste. The vitamin affects the nervous system as well as your mental attitude. It can keep your heart work properly and helps with your nervous system. If you feel fatigue, experience muscle tenderness, or have difficulty sleeping, B1 is for you. You can get this vitamin from foods also, such as oatmeal, corn breads, beans, pork chops, etc.

Vitamins will help boost your energy also. If you lack sufficient vitamins, you will start to have problems. The problems may include dry skin. Your skin may feel rough, or you may see thick corneal about the eyes. You may experience joint pain also. Vitamin deficiency can cause many complications.

Vitamins are a great source of nutrients and energy, yet you want the FDA approved supplements. You can also choose foods, such as crab meats, watermelon, fish oils, and so forth to get the vitamins you need. Veggies and fruits provide us a great source of natural vitamins. If you have skin and scalp problems, you may want to consider Biotin. Biotin is great for restoring hair, treating scalp conditions, or enhancing skin. The vitamin is said to slow balding or thinning of hair.

Why do I need to see a doctor before taking a vitamin?

Before you, start taking any kind of a daily vitamin you should talk to your doctor first. Some of the things that you are seeing you may think that they are from not having the right vitamin in your diet but it could also mean something else are wrong with you. Your condition may need attention from a doctor.

So just to make sure it is ok, you should take a trip to your family doctor and have a talk with him or her. You can buy your vitamins at the local stores in your town once your doctor gives you approval.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Birth Control and Cervical Cancer

People who are not ready to raise a family or don’t want to have anymore kids should practice birth control. For those who use birth control pills, you should be alarmed by a new study that shows that women who have taken it for a long time are at risk for developing cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer happens to about 15,000 Americans. Of that that number, a little over a third will die from this disease while the rest can be treated thanks to its early detection using Pap tests.

Women get cervical cancer from an infection known as the human papilloma virus or HPV through sexual intercourse. Most of the time, the body is able to fight it but researchers have discovered that more than half of the test group that has used oral contraceptives for more than 5 years are at risk of this disease.

You won’t see any symptoms during the early stages of cervical cancer. This will only be seen later on as you experience continuous vaginal discharge that may be bloody, brown, pale, pink and foul smelling. It is also possible that there is abnormal vaginal bleeding when you have a period, after intercourse or during post menopause. Another possibility could be heavier and longer lasting periods.

The researchers who conducted the study did not really explain why or how pills increase the risk of this form of cancer. It merely said it did and when other people read the findings, the only conclusion they could think of was the fact the since the women in the study were on the pill, this made them more sexually active.

There is nothing wrong with being sexually active but if you have multiple partners, there is a chance that one of them could be a carrier of this kind of sexually transmitted disease.

But there are those who disagree with the findings. Other studies have shown that the practice of birth control especially the use of pills decreases the chances of women from ever being diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

To be safe, women are advised to undergo regular screenings like the Pap test. Women under the age of 30 should go to the clinic annually while those who are older should have this done every two to three years.

Birth control methods also have other risks aside from cervical cancer. These include high blood pressure, liver tumors, breast cancer.

The more common side effects that you will encounter are nausea, breakthrough bleeding or spotting, breast tenderness, mood chances, decreased sex drive, weight gain, vaginal discharge, cervical changes and gallbladder disease.

But not all birth control methods available do have side effects. Abstaining and outercourse which is the opposite of intercourse are still considered to be the most effective as the sperm never meets the egg.

For those who can’t control their urges and want to get physical, they can rely on the condom since the only possible problems could be skin irritation and if your sexual partner is allergic to the latex version.

Until private companies are able to develop a better birth control pill or device that does not have side effects or increase the risk of cancer or any other disease, these are things that both men and women have to live with when they want to get some action.

Vitamins And Asthma

More than 10 million American’s throughout the United States suffer from asthma. Asthma is very common, with doctors considering it to be a new epidemic. Most Americans who suffer from asthma blame it on environmental pollution, along with the increasing exposure of toxic chemicals throughout the air. Deaths that result from asthma are on the rise, due to those who have it not recognizing the early warning signs.

The condition of asthma causes the airways in the lungs to swell, throw out thick mucus, and over time spasm. The swelling that takes place will make the airways smaller, making it difficult to breathe. The first attack from asthma that you experience may include congestion, pain, wheezing, a shortness of breath, dryness in the mouth, coughing, and a feeling as if you have a fever.

Contrary to what you may think, just about anything can result in asthma. The more common triggers of it include allergies, an upper respiratory infection, stress, over exertion in exercise, or even the lack of a proper diet. Out of all the triggers, allergies tends to be the most common.

In most cases, asthma attacks are the result of exposure to things such as smoke, pollen, gas odors, and even automotive exhaust. Foods can also trigger attacks as well, such as peanuts, corn, chocolate, and almost all dairy products. If you take any type of antibiotics, tranquilizers, or hormones, it may prompt asthma. Asthma is a serious and somewhat annoying condition, one that millions of us face on a daily basis.

There are several mineral, vitamin, and herbal supplements that you can take to treat asthma. Among all that you can take, vitamin B is among the most important. Vitamin B maintains a biochemical balance in the body and it can also reduce the severity of the attacks. If you take vitamin A and E together, they can work to protect your lungs against air pollution. You can also take large doses of vitamin C as well, as it is very effective in fighting asthma.

Gingko biloba is effective as well, as it will enhance your breathing and help with your bronchial reactions. Oder-less garlic is another great choice, as it contains an anti-inflammatory agent that will reduce your chances of an attack. Throughout the world of vitamins and supplements, there are many different things that you can take to fight back against asthma.

Anytime that you suspect you may have asthma, you shouldn’t hesitate to go to your doctor and be tested for it as soon as possible. Your doctor will be able to tell you if you have it, and how severe it may be. In the meantime, you should avoid known triggers and be sure that you are eating a high protein diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables. You should also eat a few meals throughout the day, instead of sticking with the three most common meals - breakfast, lunch, and dinner.

As a whole, asthma can be very stressful. There are ways that you can fight back and help to eliminate asthma, which is always great news. If your doctor tells you that you indeed have asthma, you should ask him any questions that come to mind, as well as his advice on what you should and shouldn’t do. Even though it may not seem like it at the time, asthma can be prevented, and it doesn’t always have to stop you from doing things you love to do. Although it may slow you down - you can always stop it.

Progress Against Hepatitis C, a Sneaky Virus


Forty years ago, a beloved neighbor was bedridden for weeks at a time with a mysterious ailment. She knew only that it involved her liver and that she must never drink alcohol, which would make things worse.
It was decades before the cause of these debilitating flare-ups was discovered: a viral infection at first called non-A, non-B hepatitis, then properly identified in 1989 as hepatitis C. The apparent source of her infection was a blood transfusion she had received decades earlier.
A screening test was soon developed, making it possible to check all blood products for the hepatitis C virus. But that by no means put an end to the infection. Transmission persists today, commonly the result of intravenous drug abuse with shared needles, sexual and especially anal intercourse, and, among health care workers, accidental needlesticks or other contact with infected blood.
“An estimated 3.2 million people in the United States are infected, but the vast majority of them don’t know it,” Dr. Mark S. Sulkowski, a liver specialist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said in an interview.
For several decades, only people at high risk for the infection were advised to be screened for it. That meant anyone who had ever injected illegal drugs; recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants before 1992, or of clotting factor concentrates made before 1987; children born to infected mothers; patients who underwent long-term kidney dialysis; anyone infected with H.I.V. or with symptoms of liver disease or an abnormal liver enzyme test; organ transplant recipients whose donors were later found to have the virus; and health care workers possibly exposed to infected blood.
But even this wide net has missed huge numbers of infected individuals, Dr. Sulkowski said.
Many at high risk are reluctant to identify themselves for screening. Others are unaware that they might be infected, including those exposed as infants or children. In more than half of infected people, the abnormality does not show up in routine blood tests until serious damage has occurred. A chronic infection can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer, and often necessitates a liver transplant.
Recognizing that deaths from hepatitis C are rising and more than three-fourths of infections are being diagnosed in baby boomers, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommends that everyone born from 1945 through 1965 be screened for the virus.
But what about other people who are walking around with undiagnosed hepatitis C infections? Should they wait until their livers are seriously damaged?
“I would recommend that everyone who comes in for a checkup be screened for hepatitis C,” said Dr. Hillel Tobias, a liver specialist at New York University Medical Center. “It can be added to a blood test and is covered by insurance.”
Thomas Carley, a 39-year-old resident of Mahopac, N.Y., and father of 7-year-old twins, knows the value of early detection. Apparently infected with hepatitis C as a child, he was diagnosed with Stage 4 liver cirrhosis in his 20s and eventually needed a liver transplant.
He is now an enthusiastic volunteer for the American Liver Foundation, which, he said in an interview, “taught me everything I needed to know to fight this disease.”
In about 20 percent of cases, the virus disappears on its own within six months of the initial infection. But the remaining 80 percent develop into a chronic infection that can slowly destroy the liver.
“The younger you are when you’re infected, the longer it takes to develop cirrhosis,” Dr. Tobias said. “It could take 25 years or more in someone infected at age 20. But a 50-year-old can develop cirrhosis in just 10 to 15 years.”
The earlier an infection is diagnosed and treated, the less likely that liver damage will occur. But even in people who already have cirrhosis, eradicating a hepatitis C infection “markedly reduces the chances of it progressing or of developing liver cancer,” Dr. Tobias said. “Even with advanced cirrhosis, people can live longer lives if you get rid of the virus.”
Until late last year, the standard treatment for hepatitis C infection was a challenging 48-week regimen of weekly injections with interferon along with one or two oral antiviral drugs, ribavirin and a protease inhibitor. The treatment almost invariably caused fatigue, depression, irritability, nausea and other debilitating side effects, prompting many infected individuals to refuse it unless obvious liver damage had occurred.
But with two newly approved drugs and a few more in the pipeline, a new era in treatment of hepatitis C is at hand. These regimens are more effective at curing patients and generally work much more quickly than previous treatments.
Hepatitis C has a variety of genetic forms — at least six. Most American patients are infected with genotype 1. The new treatments must be carefully selected for each patient, because some drugs are more effective than others against particular genotypes.
The new drugs, sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) and simeprevir (Olysio), are each approved for use with interferon and ribavirin for treatment of genotype 1 infection. Sovaldi already can be used without injected interferon to treat people infected with genotypes 2 and 3 — about a quarter of all hepatitis C patients in this country.
The Food and Drug Administration is expected to approve an all-oral drug treatment for genotype 1 infection, without interferon, toward the end of this year. But many patients are already taking oral combinations of the newer antivirals, prescribed off-label by their doctors or obtained in clinical trials.
A major study of the new drugs, called the Cosmos trial, found them effective even in patients who could not be cured by previous treatments. One very grateful recipient, John DiFazio, 62, a Vietnam vet and retired firefighter living on Staten Island, said that since the late 1990s he had tried half a dozen different treatments for hepatitis C, all various combinations with interferon, and none had cleared his body of the virus.
He started the new drugs in January and within seven days, his viral count had dropped to 938 per milliliter from 2.8 million. Now six weeks out, it is 104 per milliliter.
“I’ve had no side effects,” Mr. DiFazio said. “I can do everything I want to do.”

Vulnerable Plaque in Heart Disease

Swelling (inflammation) is the body's natural reaction to an injury. Inflammation can happen anywhere on the skin, within the body, and even inside the arteries. Scientists are now learning inflammation may play a part in many of the diseases that come with aging, including coronary artery disease.

For many years, doctors have thought that the main cause of a heart attack or stroke or was the buildup of fatty plaque within an artery, leading to the heart or brain. In time, the plaque buildup would narrow the artery so much, that the artery would close off or become clogged by a blood clot. The lack of oxygen-rich blood to the heart would then lead to a heart attack. However these types of blockages cause only about 3 out of 10 heart attacks.

Researchers are finding people who that heart attacks do not have arteries severely narrowed by plaque! Vulnerable plaque may be buried inside the artery wall, and not bulge out and block the blood flow through the artery. This is why researchers began to look at how inflammation affects the arteries, and to see if inflammation could lead to a heart attack.

What they found was that inflammation leads to the development of "soft" or vulnerable plaque. They also found that vulnerable plaque was more than just debris, clogging an artery, that it was filled with different cell types that help with blood clotting.

When this inflammation is combined with other stresses, like high blood pressure, it can cause the thin covering over the plaque to crack and bleed, spilling the entire contents of the vulnerable plaque into the bloodstream. The sticky cytokines on the artery wall capture blood cells (mainly platelets) that rush to the site of injury. When these cells clump together, they can form a clot large enough to block the artery

Monday, May 12, 2014


Cardiomyopathy is a known serious heart disease. This is where the heart muscle becomes inflamed and doesn't work as well as it needs to. There may be multiple causes including viral infections.

Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscle disease" (The deterioration of the function of the myocardium (the actual heart muscle for any reason). People with Cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and possibly sudden cardiac death (heart attack).

People used to assume that only the elderly had heart disease or heart attacks. That is not the case as heart disease can strike before birth and any age in life. Heart disease covers a wide range of health conditions relating to the heart and all its systems.

Cardiomyopathy is classified as primary or secondary. Primary cardiomyopathy is not given specific causes, such as high blood pressure, heart valve disease or congenital heart defects. Secondary cardiomyopathy is due to specific causes. It is often associated with diseases involving other organs plus the heart

Dilated (congestive) Cardiomyopathy is the most common form. The heart cavity is enlarged and stretched (cardiac dilation). The heart is weak and doesn't pump normally, with many patients developing congestive heart failure. Abnormal heart rhythms and disturbances in the heart's electrical conduction also may occur.

Blood flows more slowly through an enlarged heart, so blood clots easily form. A blood clot that forms in an artery or the heart is called a thrombus. A clot that breaks free circulates in the bloodstream and blocks a small blood vessel is called an embolus.

These clots are dangerous and can cause other systems plus their organs to become sick. For example, blood clots that form in the heart's left side may become dislodged and carried into the body's circulation to form cerebral emboli in the brain, renal emboli in the kidney, peripheral emboli or even coronary artery emboli.



Prostate is a glandular organ present only in males. It surrounds the neck of bladder & the first part of urethra and condributes a secretion to the semen. The gland is conical in shape and measures 3 cm in vertical diameter and 4 cm in transverse diameter.It has got five lobes anterior,posterior,two lateral and a median lobe.Since the first part of the urethra pass through it any lesion in the prostate will produce difficulty in passing urine.

Diseases of the prostate gland:-

1) Prostatitis:-
This is the inflamation of the prostate gland due to bacterial infection.

2) Benign enlargement of the prostate:-
This is a non cancerous tumour of the prostate seen after the age of 50. 3,Cancer of the prostate:-This is the 4th most common cause of death from malignant diseases in males.

Cancer of the prostate.

Cancer of the prostate is directly linked with the male sex hormones(androgens).If the levels of sex hormone increases the growth rate of cancer also increases.It is found that after the removel of testes there is marked reduction in the size of tumour.

Site of tumour:-
Prostate cancer is seen mainly in the posterior lobe.Non cancerous enlargement is seen in other lobes.

Changes in the gland in cancer:-
The gland becomes hard with irregular surface with loss of normal lobulation .Histologically prostate cancer is an adeno carcinoma(cancer of the epithelial cells in the gland)

Growth :-
Growth rate is very fast in prostate cancer .The tumour compresses the urethra and produce difficulty in urination.

Spread of tumour:-
Metastasis in cancer of prostate is very early.

1) Local spread:-
From the posterior lobe the cancer cells go to the lateral lobes and seminal vesicles.Tumour cells also move to the neck and base of the urinary bladder.

2) Lymphatic spread:-
Through the lymph vessels cancer cells reach the internal and external illiac group of lymph nodes.From there cells move to retroperitonial(Behind the peritonium) and mediastinal lymph nodes(in the chest)

3) Spread through the blood:-
Spread of cancer cells takeplace through the periprostatic venous plexus and reaches the vertebral veins while coughing and sneezing and finally enders the vertebral bodies of the lumbar vertebrae.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:--
Signs and symptoms depend upon the stage of the cancer. The following symptoms may be seen.

1) No symptoms:-
Tumour is small and only in the posterior lobe. This is diagnosed accidentely.

2) Slight difficulty in urination:-
Here the tumour is enlarged and urethra is slightly compressed.Shortly there will be frequent urge for urination with difficult urination.

3) When the tumour spread to all nearby areas including neck of bladder and urethra there will be painful urination with bleeding.Urine comes drop by drop.

4) Retention of urine:-
When the urethra is completely compressed there will be retention of urine.This can lead to hydronephrosis, renal failure ect.In this condition patient may get convulsions due to renal failure and finally coma.

5) Signs of metastasis:-
Some patients come with the signs and symptoms of metastasis.

a) Lumbo sacral pain due to spread of cancer cells to lumbar and sacral vertebrae.
b) Fracture of spine due to cancerous growth in the spine.
c) Swelling, pain and fluid collection in the abdomen due to lesion in the abdomen.
d) Respiratory complaints due to cancer of mediastinal lymphnodes and lungs.
e) General weakness due to spread of cancer to different parts of the body.
f) Anaemia due to involment of bone marrow and increased destruction of RBCs.

Clinical examination :-
Includes per rectal examination to feel the prostate gland,palpation of abdomen to feel the swelling in kidneys and any tumours.Patient is examined from head to foot to find out any lesions.

1) Complete blood investigations;-
RBC,WBC,Platlets,ESR,bleeding time ,clotting time ect.

2) Urine analysis:-
Microscopic examination to detect pus cells,occult blood,casts,Crystals ect.

3) Renal function tests:-
Blood urea level,serum creatinine level,electrolyte level ect.

4) Serum acid phosphatase:-
Increased in cancer of prostate.

5) x-ray of the spine:-
To detect any tumour or fracture.

6) Ultra sonography;-
Gives idea about prostate,bladder,kidney ect.

7) C T scan:-
More detailed information about organs and tumour.

8) MRI of the spine:-
Gives detailed information about spine ,disc and nearby soft tissues.

9) Lymphangiography:-
Gives idea about lymphatic spread of cancer.

10) Biopsy to confirm cancer:-
Biopsy is taken from the tumour and is send for histopathological examination under the microscope.This will detect the presence of cancer cells.

1) If there is retention of urine catheterisation is needed.
2) Dialysis if kidney failure.
3) If there is coma monitoring of all vital functions along with parentral nutrition and electolyte supply.
4) Specific treatment is prostatectomy(removal of prostate)

Partial prostatectomy :-
Here only the affected lobe is removed.

Radical prostatectomy :-
Total removal of prostate along with nearby lymphnodes.

5, Hormone therapy :-
Stilbestrol is given to reduce tumour growth.Since this treatement increases the chance for cardiovascular disease phosphorylated diethyle stilbesterol is used nowadays.

6) Chemotherapy:-Drugs like cyclophosphamide, cisoplatim ect are given.

7) Radiotherapy is also done for some cases.

8) Homoeopathy:-
Homoeopathic drugs like carcinocin, conium, sabal, crotalus, thuja, iodum, selinium, staphysagria, sulphur ect can be given according to symptoms.Constitutional homoeopathic medicine will give great relief and can increase the life span.

9) Yoga and meditation is also helpful.

Skin cancer detection app “ Dermo Screen” : New mobile technology

The DermoScreen app works with a high-quality dermoscope attachment

· This magnifying lens illuminates and scans unusual looking lesions

· It uses industry guidelines to highlight potentially cancerous cells

· At-risk patients would then be referred to a dermatologist

· During tests, the app was accurate in 85% of cases based on visual characteristics - higher than the 50% to 70% of family doctors

· It is now being evaluated for further testing before being released



The DermoScreen app works with a dermoscope attachment, pictured. The lens scans unusual looking lesions before highlighting potentially cancerous cells. During tests, the app was accurate in 85% of cases based on visual characteristics - higher than the 50% to 70% average accuracy rate of family doctors

The app, called DermoScreen, is now being evaluated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre.

If successful, it could make quick and inexpensive screening a reality for millions of people who lack access to medical specialists.

George Zouridakis, professor of engineering technology at Houston University, has worked on the project since 2005.

The goal is to provide quick screening in rural areas or in the developing world, where specialty medical care generally isn't available, he said.

Early testing found the device to be accurate 85 per cent of the time, based on visual characteristics.

This is slightly lower than the 90 per cent accuracy rate for dermatologists, but more accurate than family doctors, who have an accuracy average of between 50 and 70 per cent, according to official U.S industry figures.


The app is now being evaluated for further testing at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre. If successful, it could make quick and inexpensive screening a reality for millions of people who lack access to medical specialists, claimed the researchers. Stock image of melanoma is pictured.


A separate app called Doctor Mole, pictured, uses augmented reality to check moles for irregularities in size, shape, colour and border

Once launched, patients would be referred for follow-up if the lesions spotted on the app were suspected to be cancerous.

In addition to a mobile phone, the technology uses a dermoscope attachment - a special magnifying lens that costs about $500 (£294) and provides special illumination of the area being photographed.

Before the app becomes widely available, Zouridakis said he wants to make sure it is as accurate as possible.

He is also looking into other diagnostic uses for the technology, such as testing the device’s ability to screen Buruli ulcer, a flesh-eating bacterial disease, in Africa.

Dr. Ana Ciurea, assistant professor of dermatology at MD Anderson, said the project is in the early stages but looks promising.

‘Our research with Dr. Zouridakis on his promising iPhone app will focus on evaluating its use for risk assessment and as a screening tool for early detection of melanomas,’ she said.

‘We are in early stages of planning and approval for this project, but such an application, if validated, has the potential for widespread use to ultimately improve patient care.’



It is highly important that a mother should possess such information as will enable her to detect disease at its first appearance, and thus insure for her child timely medical assistance. This knowledge it will not be difficult for her to obtain. She has only to bear in mind what are the indications which constitute health, and she will at once see that all deviations from it must denote the presence of disorder, if not of actual disease. With these changes she must to a certain extent make herself acquainted.

Signs of health.
The signs of health are to be found, first, in the healthy performance of the various functions of the body; the regular demands made for its supply, neither in excess or deficiency; and a similar regularity in its excretions both in quantity and appearance.

If the figure of the healthy infant is observed, something may be learnt from this. There will be perceived such an universal roundness in all parts of the child's body, that there is no such thing as an angle to be found in the whole figure; whether the limbs are bent or straight, every line forms a portion of a circle. The limbs will feel firm and solid, and unless they are bent, the joints cannot be discovered.

The tongue, even in health, is always white, but it will be free from sores, the skin cool, the eye bright, the complexion clear, the head cool, and the abdomen not projecting too far, the breathing regular, and without effort.

When awake, the infant will be cheerful and sprightly, and, loving to be played with, will often break out into its merry, happy, laugh; whilst, on the other hand, when asleep, it will appear calm, every feature composed, its countenance displaying an expression of happiness, and frequently, perhaps, lit up with a smile.

Just in proportion as the above appearances are present and entire, health may be said to exist; and just in proportion to their partial or total absence disease will have usurped its place.

We will, however, for the sake of clearness examine the signs of disease as they are manifested separately by the countenance, the gestures, in sleep, in the stools, and by the breathing and cough.

Of the countenance.
In health the countenance of a thild is expressive of serenity in mind and body; but if the child be unwell, this expression will be changed, and in a manner which, to a certain extent, will indicate what part of the system is at fault.

The brows will be contracted, if there is pain, and its seat is in the head. This is frequently the very first outward sign of any thing being wrong, and will occur at the very onset of disease; if therefore remarked at an early period, and proper remedies used, its notice may prevent one of the most fearful of infantile complaints "Water in the Head."

If this sign is passed by unheeded, and the above disease be threatened, soon the eyes will become fixed and staring, the head hot, and moved uneasily from side to side upon the pillow, or lie heavily upon the nurse's arm, the child will start in its sleep, grinding its teeth, and awake alarmed and screaming, its face will be flushed, particularly the cheeks (as if rouged), its hands hot, but feet cold, its bowels obstinately costive, or its motions scanty, dark-coloured, and foul.

If the lips are drawn apart, so as to show the teeth or gums, the seat of the pain is in the belly. This sign, however, will only be present during the actual existence of suffering; if, therefore, there be any doubt whether it exist, press upon the stomach, and watch the eifect on the expression of the countenance.

If the pain arise simply from irritation of the bowels excited from indigestion, it will be temporary, and the sign will go and come just as the spasm may occur, and slight remedial measures will give relief.

If, however, the disease be more serious, and inflammation ensue, this sign will be more constantly present, and soon the countenance will become pale, or sallow and sunken, the child will dread motion, and lie upon its back with the knees bent up to the belly, the tongue will be loaded, and in breathing, while the chest will be seen to heave with more than usual effort, the muscles of the belly will remain perfectly quiescent.

If the nostrils are drawn upwards and in quick motion, pain exists in the chest. This sign, however, will generally be the accompaniment of inflammation of the chest, in which case the countenance will be discoloured, the eyes more or less staring, and the breathing will be difficult and hurried; and if the child's mode of respiring be watched, the chest will be observed to be unmoved, while the belly quickly heaves with every inspiration.

Convulsions are generally preceded by some changes in the countenance. The upper lip will be drawn up, and is occasionally bluish or livid. Then there may be slight squinting, or a singular rotation of the eye upon its own axis; alternate flushing or paleness of the face; and sudden animation followed by languor.

These signs will sometimes manifest themselves many hours, nay days, before the attack occurs; may be looked upon as premonitory; and if timely noticed, and suitable medical aid resorted to, the occurrence of a fit may be altogether prevented.

The state of the eyes should always be attended to. In health they are clear and bright, but in disease they become dull, and give a heavy appearance to the countenance; though after long continued irritation they will assume a degree of quickness which is very remarkable, and a sort of pearly brightness which is better known from observation than it can be from description.

The direction of the eyes, too, should be regarded, for from this we may learn something. When the infant is first brought to the light, both eyes are scarcely ever directed to the same object: this occurs without any tendency to disease, and merely proves, that regarding one object with both eyes is only an acquired habit. But when the child has come to that age when the eyes are by habit directed to the same object, and afterwards it loses that power, this circumstance alone may be looked upon as a frequent prelude to disease affecting the head.

Of the gestures.
The gestures of a healthy child are all easy and natural; but in sickness those deviations occur, which alone will often denote the nature of the disease.

Suppose an infant to have acquired the power to support itself, to hold its head erect; let sickness come, its head will droop immediately, and this power will be lost, only to be regained with the return of health; and during the interval every posture and movement will be that of languor.

The little one that has just taught itself to run alone from chair to chair, having two or three teeth pressing upon and irritating the gums, will for a time be completely taken off its feet, and perhaps lie languidly in its cot, or on its nurse's arm.

The legs being drawn up to the belly, and accompanied by crying, are proofs of disorder and pain in the bowels. Press upon this part, and your pressure will increase the pain. Look to the secretions from the bowels themselves, and by their unhealthy character your suspicions, in reference to the seat of the disorder, are at once confirmed.

The hands of a child in health are rarely carried above its mouth; but let there be any thing wrong about the head and pain present, and the little one's hands will be constantly raised to the head and face.

Sudden starting when awake, as also during sleep, though it occur from trifling causes, should never be disregarded. It is frequently connected with approaching disorder of the brain. It may forebode a convulsive fit, and such suspicion is confirmed, if you find the thumb of the child drawn in and firmly pressed upon the palm, with the fingers so compressed upon it, that the hand cannot be forced open without difficulty. The same condition will exist in the toes, but not to so great a degree; there may also be a puffy state of the back of the hands and feet, and both foot and wrist bent downwards.

There are other and milder signs threatening convulsions and connected with gesture, which should be regarded: the head being drawn rigidly backwards, an arm fixed firmly to the side, or near to it, as also one of the legs drawn stifly upwards. These signs, as also those enumerated above, are confirmed beyond all doubt, if there be present certain alterations in the usual habits of the child: if the sleep is disturbed, if there be frequent fits of crying, great peevishness of temper, the countenance alternately flushed and pale, sudden animation followed by as sudden a fit of languor, catchings of the breath followed by a long and deep inspiration, all so many premonitory symptoms of an approaching attack.

Of the sleep.
The sleep of the infant in health is quiet, composed, and refreshing. In very early infancy, when not at the breast, it is for the most part asleep in its cot; and although as the months advance it sleeps less, yet when the hour for repose arrives, the child is no sooner laid down to rest, than it drops off into a quiet, peaceful slumber.

Not so, if ill. Frequently it will be unwilling to be put into its cot at all, and the nurse will be obliged to take the infant in her arms; it will then sleep but for a short time, and in a restless and disturbed manner.

If it suffer pain, however slight, the countenance will indicate it; and, as when awake, so now, if there is any thing wrong about the head, the contraction of the eye-brow and grinding of the teeth will appear; if any thing wrong about the belly, the lips will be drawn apart, showing the teeth or gums, and in both instances there will be great restlessness and frequent startings.

Of the stools.
In the new-born infant the motions are dark coloured, very much like pitch both in consistence and appearance. The first milk, however, secreted in the mother's breast, acts as an aperient upon the infant's bowels, and thus in about four-and-twenty hours it is cleansed away.

From this time, and through the whole of infancy, the stools will be of a lightish yellow colour, the consistence of thin mustard, having little smell, smooth in appearance, and therefore free from lumps or white curded matter, and passed without pain or any considerable quantity of wind. And as long as the child is in health, it will have daily two or three, or even four, of these evacuations. But as it grows older, they will not be quite so frequent; they will become darker in colour, and more solid, though not so much so as in the adult.

Any deviation, then, from the above characters, is of course a sign of something wrong; and as a deranged condition of the bowels is frequently the first indication we have of coming disease, the nurse should daily be directed to watch the evacuations. Their appearance, colour, and the manner in which discharged, are the points principally to be looked to. If the stools have a very curdy appearance, or are too liquid, or green, or dark-coloured, or smell badly, they are unnatural. And in reference to the manner in which they are discharged, it should be borne in mind, that, in a healthy child, the motion is passed with but little wind, and as if squeezed out, but in disease, it will be thrown out with considerable force, which is a sign of great irritation. The number, too, of stools passed within the four-and- twenty hours it is important to note, so that if the child does not have its accustomed relief, (and it must not be forgotten that children, although in perfect health, differ as to the precise number,)

Of the breathing and cough
The breathing of a child in health is formed of equal inspirations and expirations, and it breathes quietly, regularly, inaudibly, and without effort. But let inflammation of the air-tubes or lungs take place, and the inspiration will become in a few hours so quickened and hurried, and perhaps audible, that the attention has only to be directed to the circumstance to be at once perceived.

Now all changes which occur in the breathing from its healthy standard, however slight the shades of difference may be, it is most important should be noticed early. For many of the complaints in the chest, although very formidable in their character, if only seen early by the medical man, may be arrested in their progress; but otherwise, may be beyond the control of art. A parent, therefore, should make herself familiar with the breathing of her child in health, and she will readily mark any change which may arise.

Whenever a child has the symptoms of a common cold, attended by hoarseness and a rough cough, always look upon it with suspicion, and never neglect seeking a medical opinion. Hoarseness does not usually attend a common cold in the child, and these symptoms may be premonitory of an attack of "croup;" a disease excessively rapid in its progress, and which, from the importance of the parts affected, carrying on, as they do, a function indispensably necessary to life, requires the most prompt and decided treatment.

The following observations of Dr. Cheyne are so strikingly illustrative, and so pertinent to my present purpose, that I cannot refrain inserting them: "In the approach of an attack of croup, which almost always takes place in the evening, probably of a day during which the child has been exposed to the weather, and often after catarrhal symptoms have existed for several days, he may be observed to be excited, in variable spirits, more ready than usual to laugh than to cry, a little flushed, occasionally coughing, the sound of the cough being rough, like that which attends the catarrhal stage of the measles. More generally, however, the patient has been for some time in bed and asleep, before the nature of the disease with which he is threatened is apparent; then, perhaps, without waking, he gives a very unusual cough, well known to any one who has witnessed an attack of the croup; it rings as if the child had coughed through a brazen trumpet; it is truly a tussis clangosa; it penetrates the walls and floor of the apartment, and startles the experienced mother, 'Oh! I am afraid our child is taking the croup!' She runs to the nursery, finds her child sleeping softly, and hopes she may be mistaken. But remaining to tend him, before long the ringing cough, a single cough, is repeated again and again; the patient is roused, and then a new symptom is remarked; the sound of his voice is changed; puling, and as if the throat were swelled, it corresponds with the cough," etc.

How important that a mother should be acquainted with the above signs of one of the most terrific complaints to which childhood is subject; for, if she only send for medical assistance during its first stage, the treatment will be almost invariably successful; whereas, if this "golden opportunity" is lost, this disease will seldom yield to the influence of measures, however wisely chosen or perseveringly employed.
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