Thursday, August 21, 2014

Diabetes could be cured: A study from scientists at Manchester University

Scientists at Manchester University have discovered that the hormone amylin can clump together and stop cells producing insulin

Diabetes could be cured with medication after scientists discovered that clumps of amylin may be stopping cells producing insulin
Fig. Diabetes could be cured with medication after scientists discovered that clumps of amylin may be stopping cells producing insulin (Photo courtesy: Alamy)
Diabetes could be cured after scientists discovered that toxic clumps of a hormone stop cells producing insulin.

Scientists at Manchester University have found that both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are driven by the same underlying mechanism.

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Ebola Virus Outbreak in west Africa and its Risk Assessment

The current Ebola Virus outbreak began in Guinea in December 2013. This outbreak now involves transmission in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1 711 cases (1 070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect), including 932 deaths. This is currently the largest EVD outbreak ever recorded. And on 8 August 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Epidemiological facts and experience
  • The incubation period of Ebola virus disease (EVD) varies from 2 to 21 days. Person-to-person transmission by means of direct contact with infected persons or their body fluids/secretions is considered the principal mode of transmission. In a household study, secondary transmission took

Tuesday, August 5, 2014

Preanalytical Variables : Controllable or uncontrollable (Part 3)

Standardization of specimen collection practices help reduce errors due to preanalytical variables.
  • Major physiological variables include posture, prolonged bed rest, exercise, physical training,
  • circadian variation and travel.
  • Other physiological variables include diet, lifestyle, stimulants, drugs, herbal preparations,
  • recreational drug ingestions etc.
Controllable Parameters
  • Posture – Changes water and plasma protein distribution. Many hormones’ values are
  • affected, some of them drastically. Related to that, electrolytes’ values also change.
  • Prolonged bed rest – Fluid retention occurs and related changes occur. Ca, Na, K, PO4 , SO4 changes. Also enzymes and hormones.

Pre-analytical variables : Various types of Sample collection procedure in clinical laboratory (Part 2)

 Urine Collection

  • Untimed, random specimens
  • Pre-determined interval of time – 1, 4, or 24 hours\
  • Clean, morning, fasting specimen – Preferred for most tests.
  • Clean, timed specimen – Specific times of the day.
  • Mid-stream specimen – Bladder disorders
  • Double-voided specimen – GTT
  • Metabolic disorders – Acute phase
  • Catheter specimen – Microbiological examination in critically ill

Pre-Analytical variables: Sample Collection (Part 1)

Errors during collection, processing and transport of biological specimens are common (Ref: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th Ed).

    • Common samples collected are
    • Whole blood
    • Serum
    • Plasma
    • Saliva
    • Pleural, pericardial, ascitic fluid
    • Various types of solid tissues
    • Spinal, Synovial, amniotic fluid.

 Blood Collection
  • Sources – Artery, veins, capillaries
  • Venous blood – Venipuncture
  • Arterial blood puncture – Arterial blood gas analysis
  • Capillaries – Skin puncture, in young children and for point-of-care testing

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