Thursday, December 25, 2014

Subacute Thyroiditis: Introduction, Pathogenesis, symptoms and treatment


What Is Subacute Thyroiditis?

Thyroiditis refers to an inflamed thyroid. Your thyroid is a gland in the front of your neck that controls your metabolism by releasing a variety of hormones.

Most types of thyroiditis do not cause pain in the thyroid gland. However, they typically lead to either hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Both of these conditions cause

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Low blood sugar: What are the effects in our body


Fig. Effects of low blood sugar
Every cell in your body needs sugar (glucose) to function. When your blood sugar levels drop too low, your cells become starved for energy. Initially, that can cause minor symptoms, but if you don’t get your blood sugar levels up soon, you’re at risk of serious complications.

Effects of Low Blood Sugar on the Body

When your blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below the normal range, it’s called hypoglycemia, or insulin shock.

Low blood sugar can happen when you skip a meal. It can also happen if your pancreas releases more insulin than it should after you’ve eaten. The most common reason for low blood sugar is diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough, or your body can’t use it properly. To keep blood sugar levels from rising too much (hyperglycemia), you need the right amount of insulin. With
insufficient insulin, your blood sugar levels rise. Too much, and your blood sugar levels can plummet.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Bone Metabolism : Regulation (Part 2)

Calcium and phosphate balance

Soluble Ca2+, hydroxyapatite and calcitonin 

As calcium (Ca2+) is one of the main components of our bones, large amounts are present

Bone Metabolism: Bone formation and bone resorption (Part 1)


BONE FORMATION AND BONE RESORPTION

Fig. Bone Cells
Living bone is constantly being remodeled. The state of our bones is always close to an equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption. In childhood and during the teens, bone formation is slightly ahead. We reach peak bone mass in the twenties, and from then onwards, resorption has the upper hand. There are two reasons for the

Friday, October 17, 2014

Chemotherapy and it's side effects

Chemotherapy side effects
Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they can also damage healthy cells. This damage to healthy cells causes side effects. Different cells and tissues in the body tolerate chemotherapy differently. Chemotherapy drugs have the greatest effect on rapidly dividing cells, such as blood cells in the bone marrow, cells lining the mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) tract and hair follicle cells.

What causes side effects?
Cancer cells tend to grow fast, and chemo drugs kill fast-growing cells. But because these

Experiences from Ebola Outbreak zone



Interview with Photojournalist Neil Brandvold

Q&A: What It’s Like to Cover Ebola
After returning from West Africa, photojournalist Neil Brandvold is isolating himself as a precaution.

Photojournalist Neil Brandvold recently shot video of patients and caregivers in Liberia and Sierra Leone, at the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak that has killed more than 4,400 people in recent months.

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Twitter, Facebook and Zinch may help you to find out Scholarships


Going to college can be expensive, especially after the four or five years it takes you to finish your undergraduate degree. The average American student graduates from college owing $20,000 in debt. However, there are ways to make your college experience less of a financial burden, and applying for scholarships is a fantastic way to do so. Not only will you receive financial rewards, but winning a scholarship can also help you gain stable employment after graduation or help you out if you're looking to apply for grad school. One great way to find scholarships is over various social media sites, including Twitter and

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

The Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine 2014


The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

Photo: David Bishop, UCL
John O'Keefe
Prize share: 1/2
Photo: Kavli Institute, NTNU, 
CC-BY-SA-3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
May-Britt Moser
Prize share: 1/4
Photo: Kavli Institute, NTNU, CC-BY-SA-3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
Edvard I. Moser
Prize share: 1/4

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".
Reference:  "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 6 Oct 2014. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2014/

Friday, September 26, 2014

Career opportunities in Medical Biochemistry Degree


Biochemistry involves studying the chemistry of living things such as substances, compounds and processes. Biochemists combine the fields of microbiology, cell biology, genetics, chemistry, cell biology, and physics in their day-to-day work or experiments. They get into the most, minute characteristics of organisms, and their biological processes. They may be identifying the way in which DNA, which carries the genetic information, is

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Breast Cancer: Introduction, pathophysiology and diagnosis


Breast Cancer: Where It Starts

The earlier a breast cancer lump is found, identified, and treated, the better the outlook. That’s why breast cancer testing plays such a key role in so many facets of the disease.

Unfortunately, signs of breast cancer are rarely visible from the surface of the skin. Breast self-exams should be done regularly to detect physically substantial lumps under the skin. But even self-exams may miss some cases. By moving the slide from left to right, you will see where (in most cases) breast cancer develops: deep down in the inner structures of the breast, within the ducts.

Cellular Abnormalities & Cancer

Cancer begins deep down in the body, at the cellular level. Cells are the basic building

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

The Three Major Stress Hormones: Adrenaline, Cortisol, Norepinephrine


Thanks to the work of our sympathetic nervous system, the "fight or flight" system that takes over when we're stressed, when you see your boss's name in your inbox late at night, your body reacts like there's a lion on the loose.
Behind the wide range of both physical and mental reactions to stress are a number of hormones that are in charge of adding fuel to the fire.
Adrenaline

What It Is: Commonly known as the fight or flight hormone, it is produced by the adrenal glands after receiving a message from the brain that a stressful situation has presented itself.

What It Does: Adrenaline, along with norepinephrine (more on that below), is largely

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Diabetes could be cured: A study from scientists at Manchester University


Scientists at Manchester University have discovered that the hormone amylin can clump together and stop cells producing insulin

Diabetes could be cured with medication after scientists discovered that clumps of amylin may be stopping cells producing insulin
Fig. Diabetes could be cured with medication after scientists discovered that clumps of amylin may be stopping cells producing insulin (Photo courtesy: Alamy)
Diabetes could be cured after scientists discovered that toxic clumps of a hormone stop cells producing insulin.

Scientists at Manchester University have found that both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are driven by the same underlying mechanism.

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Ebola Virus Outbreak in west Africa and its Risk Assessment


The current Ebola Virus outbreak began in Guinea in December 2013. This outbreak now involves transmission in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1 711 cases (1 070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect), including 932 deaths. This is currently the largest EVD outbreak ever recorded. And on 8 August 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Epidemiological facts and experience
  • The incubation period of Ebola virus disease (EVD) varies from 2 to 21 days. Person-to-person transmission by means of direct contact with infected persons or their body fluids/secretions is considered the principal mode of transmission. In a household study, secondary transmission took

Tuesday, August 5, 2014

Preanalytical Variables : Controllable or uncontrollable (Part 3)


Standardization of specimen collection practices help reduce errors due to preanalytical variables.
clip_image006 
  • Major physiological variables include posture, prolonged bed rest, exercise, physical training,
  • circadian variation and travel.
  • Other physiological variables include diet, lifestyle, stimulants, drugs, herbal preparations,
  • recreational drug ingestions etc.
Controllable Parameters
  • Posture – Changes water and plasma protein distribution. Many hormones’ values are
  • affected, some of them drastically. Related to that, electrolytes’ values also change.
  • Prolonged bed rest – Fluid retention occurs and related changes occur. Ca, Na, K, PO4 , SO4 changes. Also enzymes and hormones.

Pre-analytical variables : Various types of Sample collection procedure in clinical laboratory (Part 2)


 Urine Collection

    clip_image006
  • Untimed, random specimens
  • Pre-determined interval of time – 1, 4, or 24 hours\
  • Clean, morning, fasting specimen – Preferred for most tests.
  • Clean, timed specimen – Specific times of the day.
  • Mid-stream specimen – Bladder disorders
  • Double-voided specimen – GTT
  • Metabolic disorders – Acute phase
  • Catheter specimen – Microbiological examination in critically ill

Pre-Analytical variables: Sample Collection (Part 1)


Errors during collection, processing and transport of biological specimens are common (Ref: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th Ed).

    clip_image002
    • Common samples collected are
    • Whole blood
    • Serum
    • Plasma
    • Saliva
    • Pleural, pericardial, ascitic fluid
    • Various types of solid tissues
    • Spinal, Synovial, amniotic fluid.

 Blood Collection
  • Sources – Artery, veins, capillaries
  • Venous blood – Venipuncture
  • Arterial blood puncture – Arterial blood gas analysis
  • Capillaries – Skin puncture, in young children and for point-of-care testing


Monday, June 30, 2014

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): Glucose Challenge Test or Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)


What is gestational diabetes?
The hormone insulin moves glucose or sugar from your blood and into your body’s cells, where it is used for energy. When you have diabetes, this process is blocked and your cells become “insulin resistant”.  This causes you to have too much glucose in your blood. In pregnancy, the hormones from the placenta, which help your baby to grow, can cause your cells to become insulin resistant. Usually in pregnancy the body produces more insulin to counter this but in some mothers this doesn’t happen and they develop gestational diabetes.

Mom's Diet Right Before Pregnancy Can Alter Baby's Genes


Pregnant women have heard it time and time again: What you eat during those nine months can have long-term effects on your child's health.

One study even found that when pregnant women eat a diverse diet, the resulting babies are less picky in the foods they choose.

So what about mom's eating habits before she even knows she's pregnant?

Nutritional deficiencies right at the time of conception can alter a baby's genes permanently, scientists at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine report Tuesday.


Thursday, June 26, 2014

Raises Tenfold risk by Diabetes gene : A study on Greenland



Fig. Greenland: The island's population is only 57,000
A genetic susceptibility that gives a tenfold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes has been discovered.
The gene mutation, found in the population of Greenland, will give clues to the different causes of the condition, say Danish scientists.
The research, published in Nature, adds to evidence genetics plays a role in the chances of developing diabetes.

Mobile phones carry owners "Bacterial fingerprint"


By Helen Briggs

Fig. The bugs from our bodies end up on our smartphones
Smartphones reflect the personal microbial world of their owners, say US scientists.
More than 80% of the common bacteria that make up our personal bacterial "fingerprints" end up on their screens, a study suggests.
Personal possessions, such as phones, might be useful for tracking the spread of bacteria, they report in PeerJ.
They reflect our microbiome - the trillions of different micro-organisms that live in and on our bodies.
Mobile phone users have been found to touch their devices on average 150 times a day.


Scientists have found an overlap between the collection of micro-organisms naturally present on our bodies and those on the screens of smartphones.
They say this could one day be used to track people's exposure to bacteria.
In the study, biologists from the University of Oregon sequenced the DNA of microbes found on the index fingers and thumbs of 17 people.
They also took swabs of the subjects' smartphones.
A total of 7,000 different types of bacteria were found in 51 samples.
Proof-of-concept
On average, 22% of bacterial families overlapped on fingers and phones.
Some 82% of the most common bacteria present on participants' fingers were also found on their phones.
They included three families that are commonly found on the skin or in the mouth - StreptococcusStaphylococcus and Corynebacterium.
Men and women both shared bacteria with their phones, but the connection was stronger in women.
Lead researcher Dr James Meadow said while the sample size was small, the findings were "revealing".
"This project was a proof-of-concept to see if our favourite and most closely held possessions microbially resemble us," he said.
"We are ultimately interested in the possibility of using personal effects as a non-invasive way to monitor our health and our contact with the surrounding environment."
The researchers say there is no evidence that mobile phones present any more infection risk than any other possession.
But they say our phones might one day be used to study whether people have been exposed to certain bacteria, particularly healthcare workers.
Emotional connection
The study confirms that "we share more than an emotional connection with our phones - they carry our personal microbiome", Dr Meadow added.
There is increasing scientific interest in the human microbiome - the population of trillions of micro-organisms that live in our gut, mouth, skin and elsewhere on our bodies.
Bacteria can be harmful but they can also have beneficial effects, particularly in the gut, by digesting food and making essential nutrients and vitamins.

(Source: BBC Health news)

Tuesday, June 10, 2014

How to Lower Cholesterol without any drug ?

There has been a substantial increase in people having high cholesterol levels. It has been proven in many studies that an unhealthy increase in blood cholesterol levels can lead or be associated with the development of heart disease. High cholesterol levels can also increase the risk of strokes and heart attacks. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among people living in industrialized societies such as the US. The increasing incidence of high cholesterol levels in people living in this part of the world can often be contributed to a high saturated fat diet, smoking and leading a sedentary lifestyle.

There are several dugs now available that is being used to treat unhealthy cholesterol levels in people. Most popular of these is the HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor or what is more simply known as Statins. This group of cholesterol lowering drugs come in different name drugs and is increasingly being used in order to help high risk patients drastically lower their cholesterol levels. Statins can also increase the levels of HDL or "good" cholesterol.

Although statins and other known drugs being used to lower cholesterol levels have been proven to be very effective, there are also other ways available for people to lower their

Monday, June 9, 2014

Good and bad cholesterol : What is the difference?


Fig. Difference between Good and Bad Cholesterol
For years we've heard about how cholesterol ratio is the leading indicator for heart disease potentiality. That's great to know, but rarely was that information bundled with an actual description of what cholesterol ratio means and how to adjust yours to lead to a longer, healthier and happier life.

Let's start simply: Your cholesterol ratio is the ratio of your total cholesterol to your High-density Cholesterol (HDL). Your total cholesterol level is determined by adding your Low-density Cholesterol (LDL) and your high-density cholesterol. Low-density cholesterol is frequently called your "bad" cholesterol, while your high-density cholesterol is frequently called your "good" cholesterol.

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation:

For carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system pK = 6.1.
The normal ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide in plasma is (25 mmol/L)/(1.25 mmol/L) = 20/1. This equation shows any change in bicarbonate or dissolved CO2 is accompanied by change in pH.  The numerator characterizes primary metabolic disturbance and is the renal component and denominator characterizes primary respiratory disturbance and is the respiratory component. 
The application of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to human acid-base physiology can be illustrated by lever-fulcrum (teeter-totter) diagram:

 

BUFFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR ROLES IN REGULATING THE pH OF BODY FLUIDS


A buffer is a mixture of a weak acid and salt of its conjugate base that resists the change in pH upon the addition of acid or base. If acid and base components of buffer are equal, the pH is equal of pK. Generally buffer works best at pH ±1 unit of its pK. Buffer work best when the ratio of acid : base is within the range of 10 : 1 to 1 : 10. Buffers are also effective at higher concentration.

Find out your risk for Metabolic Syndrome

Researchers have found certain variables play an important role in a person's chances of developing heart disease. These variables are called risk factors. In recent years, researchers have found that some of these heart disease risk factors cluster together in certain people. This clustering of risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also called Reaven syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, or Metabolic Syndrome X.

Fig. Metabolic Syndrome
People with metabolic syndrome have a clustering of the following risk factors:

• Central obesity (extra weight around the stomach)
• Diabetes or glucose intolerance
• High levels of triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good cholesterol") in the bloodstream
• High Blood Pressure (hypertension)

There is still much to be learned about metabolic syndrome. Doctors do know that people with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of heart attack or coronary artery disease.

Researchers think that metabolic syndrome maybe a genetic condition. This means that the genes are passed down from one generation to the next. For the most part doctors do not fully understand why metabolic syndrome happens.

People with insulin-resistant conditions, such as diabetes and hyperinsulinemia are more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is a condition where the body cannot make or respond properly to the hormone insulin. Hyperinsulinemia is a condition where large amounts of insulin are pumped into the bloodstream. What are the signs of metabolic syndrome?

Patients with metabolic syndrome will not feel any symptoms. But there are signs that might lead doctors to a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.

Doctors can check your HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and weight, all of which are warning signs of metabolic syndrome. You may also need blood tests to measure the levels of glucose and insulin in your bloodstream.

Sunday, May 18, 2014

Vitamins for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The Effects of Vitamins for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome can vary from person to person. There are people who experience symptoms of diarrhea with their irritable bowel syndrome while there are some people who experience constipation. Because of this, there are different

Vitamins That Help With Hair Growth

Fig. Vit. E containing diets
Loss of hair, or baldness, is the result of not having enough vitamin B supplements. Vitamin B is very important, as it contains B3 niacin, which is very important for growing hair. Vitamin B6 is another important vitamin, containing nutrients such as sulfur, biotin, magnesium, and zinc. Without these vitamins, your body

won’t be able to grow hair as much, which commonly results in balding or hair loss as we get older.



How Depression affects Coronary Heart Disease

Depression is now considered a major health problem, particularly those health problems related to heart disease. It is now important to recognize that depression is directly linked with heart disease. Depression is an illness that can affect anyone at any time.

Research shows that depression is extremely common with people who have coronary heart disease. Depression is known to increase the risk of further heart problems in people with coronary disease. Depression is a risk factor for coronary

Saturday, May 17, 2014

Vitamin E and Healthy Aging



Did you know that at least 200 UI daily of vitamin E can help fight various diseases? Studies found that alpha tocopherol, or Vitamin E has proven to fight particular diseases. Studies show that Vitamin E may help with oxygen preserving and potentially offers cure for various disease. Taking 200 IU daily may trim down up to 40% or more of oxygen preserves, which controls bodily organs and the heart. The vitamin seems to have a “anti-coagulant” that has proven to support the overall bodily functions. Vitamin E was discovered to reduce blood clotting and can help prevent heart disease.




The vitamin is said to assist with dilating flowing blood vessels. This means the heart will receive the blood flow it deserves to stay healthy. Vitamin E has also been linked to an anti-aging solution. Many doctors believe that this helpful vitamin will stabilize a person’s overall development or maturity. In fact, German doctors called Vitamin E the fountain of youth. In extensive studies, vitamin E was found to promote blood flow. According to the findings, Vitamin E when present is an resister to aging.





Vitamin E is linked to promoting hemoglobin. Since aging has an unknown affect on blood cells and bone marrow, doctors believe that Vitamin E’s support to hemoglobin is a potential solution to solving disease related to hemoglobin. Our hemoglobin structure detains oxygen for an extended time, which means that oxygen will flow smoothly. Vitamin E has been linked to reduced risks of disease, since it is said that oxygen will stay within the cavities of hemoglobin at a lengthier time. This means that the person will live a healthy, youthful life.





Sometimes as we grow older, the blood that forms in our system slows. Vitamin E works to allow blood to flow smoothly. In view of the facts, doctors found that this vitamin may reduce the risks of anemia. Vitamin E was discovered to perhaps purify the blood, which allows it to flow smooth throughout the body. As we grow older, our body experiences many changes, which prompts aging plaques. These plaques when build will cause wrinkling, sagging, crowfeet, and other aging signs. Vitamin E works to maintain metabolism by potentially keeping away fatty acids, which are saturated. (Learn more about hydrocarbons and peroxides, which are aging toxins)

At what time saturated fats join with Vitamin E to slow aging. We need a degree of fatty acids, yet when the acids build it creates elements that promote aging. Vitamin E has shown signs of controlling the blood fats, keeping the fats at bay. Blood fat is also linked to aging. Therefore, we can see that vitamin E has much to offer. Yet, some experts argue that Vitamin E has side-effects that could cause harm; many other experts uphold the ability of support that Vitamin E offers.





Vitamin E has also shown signs of reducing ailments of the muscles. The healthy regimen of vitamin E daily according to experts can reduce arthritic symptoms. According to experts, arthritis and its sister components may link to rapid aging.





Vitamin E has shown to reduce leg cramps. In fact, studies were conducted by qualifying doctors who tested their patients. The patients complained of leg cramp, which doctors recommended Vitamin E. During this particular study the patient who ceased Vitamin E reported cramping in the legs. The patient was asked to start up the vitamin once more and when he returned to visit his doctor, the leg cramps ceased. The studies were conducted at the California or American Colleges of Physician. To learn more about vitamin E and what it can do for you, research your topic to find your purpose.


Vitamin E And Your Body

We all know that oxygen is a primary component that is needed for life. This very same oxygen, once inside of the body, becomes very reactive through certain molecules and will start to cause damage through the free radicals, which is known as oxidative stress. As an antioxidant, vitamin E will help to prevent this type of stress, which will prevent the cells from aging or sustaining any type of permanent damage as well.

Cholesterol, which is a fatty substance found in many foods, is absorbed by the body then transferred from the liver to be stored by tissue as fat. This is carried through the bloodstream by molecules known as LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins). When the LDL is oxidized, it reacts to the cholesterol and a fat substance known as plaque begins to get deposited on the artery walls, which causes the blood flow to stop.

Vitamin E will stop cholesterol from forming into plaque, which will allow the blood to flow properly. If you don’t use vitamin E, in this situation, the blood will stop flowing and the arteries will begin to get backed up. As most of us know, this is the main cause of heart attacks, high blood pressure, and other serious diseases.

Even though many researchers and doctors have linked vitamin E to preventing cancer, this hasn’t been conclusively proven. There are many doctors that have said in the past that vitamin E can indeed prevent cancer, although no documentation or proof has been given to back up such statements. We all know that it is a very important vitamin, regardless.

There are studies however, that have proven vitamin E to be very effective in protecting the skin against UV rays. Vitamin E has been shown on numerous occasions to shield the skin from the harmful rays of the sun, which as we all know, can lead to skin cancer. If you include sources of vitamin E, or supplements in your diet you can help to prevent the damage of UV rays to your skin.

Along with these types of benefits, vitamin E can also protect against alzheimer’s disease and inflammation of the pancreas. This vitamin can also be very beneficial with reducing scars, and healing many types of burns and wounds. Included in your diet, vitamin E can help your skin to heal from many discrepancies over time.

When included with vitamin C, vitamin E can be one of the most important vitamins for your body. It offers many different benefits, besides the ones listed above. You can find it in many different forms, including fruits and nuts. Fruits are excellent sources of vitamin E, especially oranges. Oranges have always been known to be rich in this vitamin, whether you are consuming whole oranges or just drinking orange juice. If you are drinking orange juice that contains pulp, you’ll be getting plenty of vitamin E in your diet.

All things aside, you should always make sure that you include vitamin E in your diet. Along with fruits and nuts, you can also find this vitamin plentiful in vegetables as well. You can include it into your diet, or take supplements that provide it. You should be getting around 1,000 mg of the vitamin a day, which isn’t hard to do if you eat the right foods. If you consume the right amount of vitamin E in your diet, you’ll notice that your body will perform much better - and you’ll be well protected against numerous diseases as well.

Drug Addiction: A Disease

Drug addiction is a disease. There’s no doubt about that. In fact experts say that drug addiction is more of a brain disease than anything else. Scientific advances have offered amazing insights into how the brain works and what drugs do to the way the brain functions. Luckily, however, this disease is treatable and curable.

Friday, May 16, 2014

Vitamins For A Healthy Heart




As we all know, vitamins are very important when it comes to keeping your heart healthy. You need to eat the right foods of course, although you also need to supplement the food you eat with the necessary vitamins your body needs to stay in shape and keep your heart working healthy for a long time to come. If you don’t consume the right nutrients, you won’t be doing your heart any favors - and may end up having problems later on in life.





The first vitamin that comes to mind for most people is vitamin E, a vitamin that is essential to improving the overall health of your heart. When taken correctly, vitamin E will stop the cholesterol in the body from harming the arteries that surround the heart. Anytime cholesterol oxidizes, it sticks to the sides of the arteries and can lead to blockages which can cause heart attacks or other serious problems with the heart.





To help you keep your heart healthy, most doctors recommend that you take additional supplements that contain vitamin E. They may also suggest that you eat foods that are naturally rich in vitamin E, such as nuts. Nuts have high amounts of vitamin E, and most of them taste great. You can find other foods that contain vitamin E as well, although nuts have the highest amounts.





In the past, research has shown Vitamin E to help those who have already suffered the wrath of a heart attack. This vitamin helps to prevent heart attacks in the future by opening up the arteries and eliminate blockage. Those who have had a heart attack in the past are always encouraged to add more vitamin E to their diet.





What many aren’t aware of, is the fact that you can use vitamin C to boost the effects of vitamin E. Vitamin C is known as an antioxidant, which prevents the damaging effects that cholesterol has on the body. Along with preventing cholesterol from damaging the body, vitamin C also helps vitamin E with it’s functions - such as protecting your arteries and your heart.





By taking both vitamin C and E as a combination, you’ll be well on your way to a healthier heart. Overall, this is the easiest way that you can be sure you aren’t damaging your heart, especially if you have had a heart attack in the past. If you have a history of heart disease or heart problems in your family, these vitamins are essential to your diet. Even if you are just concerned about the health of your heart, these vitamins will give you the peace of mind in knowing that you are eating for a healthy heart.





As far as your dosage goes, it will vary from person to person, although 400 international units of vitamin E and C are the recommended amounts for most people. On it’s own, vitamin C can be tolerated in large doses, without imposing any harmful effects. You can take around 500 mg of it twice a day, and ensure that your heart remains healthy.





To be on the safe side, you should always make sure that you get the proper amount of vitamins in your daily diet. Taking additional vitamins and supplements isn’t a bad idea either, especially if you are trying to boost the health of your heart. Your heart is one of the most important organs in your body, which is why you should always take care of it. If you eat the proper diet and take the necessary vitamins - you’ll be well on your way to keeping your heart healthy.


Bradycardia the Hearts Slow Rate




Bradycardia is when the heart rate is less than that of sixty beats per minute. A normal healthy heartbeat is between sixty and one hundred beats per minute. Bradycardia is the opposite of Tachycardia – the condition where the heart beats way to fast.





In some people, such as athletes and people who are very active, Bradycardia rates can be as low as fifty beats per minute. This can be normal and as the person exercises, the heart rate will continue to become stronger and more efficient. This is because less heart contractions are necessary to supply their body’s needs.





In other cases, bradycardia can be a form of cardiac arrhythmia, a heart-rate abnormality.



Bradycardia can cause dizziness, weakness, lack of energy, or fainting spells.





If bradycardia is caused by a medical illness, there will be additional symptoms that are specific to that illness. For example, people whose bradycardia is due to severe hypothyroidism may also be able to have constipation, muscle cramps, weight gain, very dry skin, hair that is thin and dry, an abnormal sensitivity to cold temperatures and other symptoms related to low levels of thyroid hormones.



How long bradycardia lasts depends on its cause.





For example, normal bradycardia in a well-trained athlete will last as long as the athlete maintains his or her usual level of exercise. For instance is bradycardia occurs as a side effect of medication, it usually disappears as soon as the drug that triggered the bradycardia is finished. For example any Bradycardia caused by hypothyroidism will go away quickly after treatment with thyroid hormones. There are certain forms of bradycardia resulting from cardiac arrhythmias that can be cured with a permanent pacemaker.





When bradycardia occurs as a side effect of medication, the problem can be prevented by either switching the drug or reducing its dose. In premature infants, bradycardia is also very common and the infant will require constant medical attention.


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